Thermal Engineering, Copyright 2021 Thermal Engineering | All Rights Reserved |, Conservation of Energy in Nuclear Reactions, What is Mechanical Energy Formula - Equation - Definition, What is Relativistic Kinetic Energy - Definition, What is Example of Energy of 1 Joule – Definition, What is Enthalpy of Vaporization – Definition. 1. Your answer should always be stated in joules (J), which is the standard unit of measurement for kinetic energy. Ring in the new year with a Britannica Membership, This article was most recently revised and updated by, https://www.britannica.com/science/kinetic-energy. Explanation:The formula for calculating kinetic energy (KE) is KE = 0.5 x mv2. The Definition of Kinetic Energy Kinetic energy … v = velocity of the body. Kinetic Energy is the energy an object has owing to its motion. The formula for kinetic energy of a point mass or rigid body moving at non-relativistic speeds (speeds very less than speed of light) is the following: Kinetic Energy (KE) = ½ M V2 Here, ‘M’ is the mass of the point mass (in Kg) or rigid body and ‘V’ is the velocity (m/sec) at which it is moving. = mgh, where m is the mass in kilograms, g is the acceleration due to gravity (9.8 m / s 2 at the surface of the earth) and h is the height in meters. You can also learn what kinetic energy is, find out how to use or apply the formula, and see the difference between kinetic energy and potential. The kinetic energy, K, is defined as the energy stored in an object because of its motion. But why exactly is there a half in the formula… But why exactly is there a half in the formula… Skip to content Kinetic energy is the energy of motion. 4. This implies that an object, even if it is small can have very high amount of kinetic energy if it is moving at a great velocity. If you want to get in touch with us, please do not hesitate to contact us via e-mail: Classical kinetic energy formula or equation can be used in most cases. The lost energy takes the form of heat, raising the temperature (if only imperceptibly) of the colliding objects.…. m = mass of the body. You can find the number of moles of helium with the ideal gas equation: PV = nRT. The following equation is used to determine the kinetic energy of standard object like paper, cars or planets. The kinetic energy equation is as follows: KE = 0.5 * m * v², where: m - mass, v - velocity. Kinetic Energy Formula Derivation Consider a body of mass ‘m’ placed on a horizontal surface initially at rest. Our editors will review what you’ve submitted and determine whether to revise the article. By signing up for this email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica. Kinetic energy is the energy possessed by a body due to its motion. Updates? This is for linear motion of the body. Also, foot-pound is the imperial unit of this energy. Kinetic energy is typically measured in units of Joules, and 1 Joule is equal to 1 kilogram-meters squared per second squared. If work, which transfers energy, is done on an object by applying a net force, the object speeds up and thereby gains kinetic energy. The formula for calculating kinetic energy (KE) is KE = 0.5 x mv 2. E k = 1/2 mv 2. The Cookies Statement is part of our Privacy Policy. It is the translational kinetic energy of the object. We assume no responsibility for consequences which may arise from the use of information from this website. If the body has a mass of m that was pushed for a distance of d on a surface with a force that’s parallel to it.The acceleration in this equation can be substituted by the initial (vi) and final (vf) velocity and the distance. Let us know if you have suggestions to improve this article (requires login). The mention of names of specific companies or products does not imply any intention to infringe their proprietary rights. …the atom consisting of the kinetic energy of the electrons and the electrostatic and magnetic energies between the electrons and between the electrons and the nucleus.…, …electron in the form of kinetic energy. For example, see Positron-electron Pair Production or Conservation of Energy in Nuclear Reactions. See mechanics: Rotation about a moving axis. Omissions? It is caused by the Lorentz factor, which approaches infinity for v → c. Therefore the speed of light cannot be reached by any massive particles. = 1/2 mv 2, where "m" stands for mass and "v" stands for velocity. Here m stands for mass, the measure of how much matter is in an object, and v stands for the velocity of the object, or the rate at which the object changes its position. The Kinetic energy is the energy that an object has due to its motion. Kinetic energy (KE) of an object is the energy that it possesses due to its motion. K is zero, so the total energy is its rest energy: This is one of the striking results of Einstein’s theory of relativity is that mass and energy are equivalent and convertible one into the other. The first term (ɣmc2) is known as the total energy E of the particle, because it equals the rest energy plus the kinetic energy: For a particle at rest, i.e. where: m is repressing the mass of any object; v is representing the velocity of the object. This calculator tool uses the kinetic energy formula, which is required for objects with horizontal or vertical movement. The total–kinetic energy formula tells you that KE total = (3/2)nRT. The total kinetic energy of a body or a system is equal to the sum of the kinetic energies resulting from each type of motion. K = ½mv 2. This we get from the kinematic equations of motion.Kinetic Energy’s (K) basic quantity ½mv2 changes when a particular sum of work is acte… m = mass. Springer, 2010, ISBN 978-1-4020-8670-0. J. R. Lamarsh, A. J. Baratta, Introduction to Nuclear Engineering, 3d ed., Prentice-Hall, 2001, ISBN: 0-201-82498-1. It must be added, it is called the “translational” kinetic energy to distinguish it from rotational kinetic energy. J. R. Lamarsh, Introduction to Nuclear Reactor Theory, 2nd ed., Addison-Wesley, Reading, MA (1983). The unit of energy is ‘Joule’. [28] It’s All Energy, Potentially Potential and kinetic energy are part of the enormous energy … This formula is valid only for low to relatively high speeds; for extremely high-speed particles it yields values that are too small. When body subjected to both linear and Angular motion then, Kinetic Energy (K.E) = mv 2 /2 + Iω 2 /2. 1) You may use almost everything for non-commercial and educational use. K=mv22 3. a statement about the energy is that, 2) You may not distribute or commercially exploit the content, especially on another website. The usual formula for kinetic energy is ½mv2, which you have most likely seen before. Kinetic energy. Glasstone, Sesonske. What is kinetic energy? If an object’s speed is close to the speed of light, it is necessary to use relativistic kinetic energy formula… In formula form: Dimensional Formula of Kinetic Energy Derivation, using algebra alone (and assuming constant acceleration). For the angular motion, Kinetic Energy (K.E) = Inertia x (Angular Velocity) 2. E k = Kinetic energy. Activities like cooking food, dancing on music, singing a song requires energy… In classical mechanics, the kinetic energy of a point object (an object so small that its mass can be assumed to exist at one point), or a non-rotating rigid body depends on the mass of the body as well as its speed. Equivalence of the mass and energy is described by Einstein’s famous formula E = mc2. Here m stands for mass, the measure of how much matter is in an object, and v sta… … Kinetic energy is the energy of mass (an object) in motion (moving). The formula for kinetic energy (KE) expressed in terms of the body's velocity (speed) (v) and its mass (m) is the first equation below: whereas the second and third ones are the transformed equations for solving for mass or velocity. It is defined as the work needed to accelerate a body of a given mass from rest to its stated velocity. Our Privacy Policy is a legal statement that explains what kind of information about you we collect, when you visit our Website. 1. It is equivalent to 1 kg * m 2 … Kinetic energy is the energy possessed by a body, object or particle due to its motion. Soft objects, indeed, may adhere on collision, losing most of their kinetic energy. Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox. We can also define it as the work needed to accelerate an object of a given mass from rest to its stated velocity. Kinetic Energy Formula. Having gained this energy during its acceleration, the body maintains this kinetic energy unless its speed changes. For the Kinetic formula, Ek, is certainly the energy of a mass, m, motion, of course, is v 2. The formula for the rotational kinetic energy of a body rotating on an axis is the following: If an object’s speed is close to the speed of light, it is necessary to use relativistic mechanics to calculate its kinetic energy. Solving for n gives you the following: Plug in the numbers and solve to find the number of moles: So you have . When we generalize these laws according to the principle of relativity, we need a corresponding generalization of the equation for kinetic energy. Kinetic energy of a moving object is dependent both upon its mass as well as its velocity and is calculated using the following formula. Kinetic Energy Formula is articulated as. v is the speed expressed in meters per second (m / s) The relativistic kinetic energy is approximated well by the classical when the rate is much lower than the speed of light. As velocity of an object approaches the speed of light, the kinetic energy approaches infinity. Translational kinetic energy of a body is equal to one-half the product of its mass, m, and the square of its velocity, v, or 1/2mv2. Current Location > Physics Formulas > Mechanics > Kinetic & Potential Energy. Relativistic kinetic energy is equal to the increase in the mass of a particle over that which it has at rest multiplied by the square of the speed of light. So it is proportional to mass (m) and proportional to the square of its velocity. When a force F' is applied, it covers a distanceS’ and its final velocity becomes “v”. Naturally, the kinetic energy of an object at rest should be zero. Accordingly, rotational kinetic energy is equal to one-half the product of the moment of inertia and the square of the angular velocity, or 1/2Iω2. On the other hand, the kinetic energy of an object represents the amount of energy required to increase the velocity of the object from rest (v = 0) to its final velocity. Kinetic energy is most easily conceptualized in moving objects that you can see. For everyday objects the energy unit in the metre-kilogram-second system is the joule. Don't forget to try our free app - Agile Log , which helps you track your time spent on various projects and tasks, :) Try It Now. In classical mechanics, kinetic energy (KE) is equal to half of an object's mass (1/2*m) multiplied by the velocity squared. Kinetic Energy Formula. Translational kinetic energy of a body is equal to one-half the product of its mass, m, and the square of its velocity, v, or 1/2mv2. Thus an object's kinetic energy is defined mathematically by the following equation…. Kleinstreuer C. Modern Fluid Dynamics. Kinetic Energy (K.E) = mv 2 /2. While every effort has been made to follow citation style rules, there may be some discrepancies. For further details, you can read more about energy formulas. The energy possessed by a moving body due to its motion is known as Kinetic Energy. Most noteworthy, the standard unit of this energy happens to be the joule. The SI unit of measurement of Kinetic energy is the same as Potential energy which is kg. By "kinetic energy equation", I assume you mean the definition$$KE = \frac{1}{2} mv^2$$ This does indeed arise from the work-energy theorem, which says that the net work done on an object of mass $m$over some interval of time is given by $$W_{net}=\frac{1}{2}mv_f^2- … Kinetic Energy Formula. Thomas Young (1773–1829) derived a similar formula in 1807, although he neglected to add the ½ to the front and he didn't use the words mass and weight with the same precision we do nowadays. What is the kinetic energy of the car? K.E = ½ mv 2. Kinetic energy is directly proportional to the object's mass and its velocity square, which is K.E. Classical kinetic energy formula or equation can be used in most cases. In physics, the kinetic energy of an object is the energy that it possesses due to its motion. Kinetic energy is directly proportional to the mass of the object and to the square of its velocity: ... For the gravitational force the formula is P.E. Burning Questions. Below, you can work out your kinetic energy answers with the calculator. Formula (equation) for kinetic energy; Example 1 on how to calculate kinetic energy; Example 2 on how to calculate kinetic energy; Kinetic energy calculator; Kinetic energies for various objects; What is kinetic energy. This formula is valid only for low to relatively high speeds; for extremely high-speed particles it yields values that are too small. For a rotating body, the moment of inertia, I, corresponds to mass, and the angular velocity (omega), ω, corresponds to linear, or translational, velocity. We hope, this article, Kinetic Energy Formula – Equation, helps you. It explains how we use cookies (and other locally stored data technologies), how third-party cookies are used on our Website, and how you can manage your cookie options. If work, which transfers energy, is done on an object by applying a net force, the object speeds up and thereby gains kinetic energy. This is the formula of Kinetic energy of an object of mass m moving with speed v along a line. It is produced by the movement of a body. Kinetic Energy (K.E) = Iω 2 /2. An object in motion has the ability to do work and thus can be said to have energy. Translational kinetic energy of a body is equal to one-half the product of its mass, m, and the square of its velocity, v, or 1/2mv2. Kinetic energy is a property of a moving object or particle and depends not only on its motion but also on its mass. The kinetic energy formula defines the relationship between the mass of an object and its velocity. For a rotating body the moment of inertia, I, corresponds to mass, and the angular velocity (omega), ω, corresponds to linear, or translational, velocity. Kinetic & Potential Energy. The previous relationship between work and kinetic energy are based on Newton’s laws of motion. The same energy could be used to decelerate the … Kinetic energy is usually measured in units of Joules (J). For example, if a an object with a mass of 10 kg (m = 10 kg) is moving at a velocity of 5 meters per second (v = 5 m/s), the kinetic energy is equal to 125 Joules, or (1/2 * 10 kg) * 5 m/s It’s measured in Julius. A 100 kilogram (kg) car is moving at a speed of 25 meters per second (m/s). Kinetic energy formulas. A 2-kg mass (4.4 pounds on Earth) moving at a speed of one metre per second (slightly more than two miles per hour) has a kinetic energy of one joule. W. M. Stacey, Nuclear Reactor Physics, John Wiley & Sons, 2001, ISBN: 0- 471-39127-1. U.S. Department of Energy, THERMODYNAMICS, HEAT TRANSFER, AND FLUID FLOW. = ½ * m * v² . The kind of motion may be translation (or motion along a path from one place to another), rotation about an axis, vibration, or any combination of motions. If an object is moving, it is said to have kinetic energy. The kinetic energy equation is: KE = 0.5 * m * v² or K.E. By knowing the source frequency and measuring the kinetic energies of the ejected electrons, the ionization energy of an electron in each of the AOs or MOs of a system can be determined. The unit in the centimetre-gram-second system is the erg, 10−7 joule, equivalent to the kinetic energy of a mosquito in flight. The formula for kinetic energy describes the association between the mass of an object and its velocity. With the help of this formula, it can be estimated how much energy will be needed … DOE Fundamentals Handbook, Volume 1, 2 and 3. Where m is the mass in kilograms, v is the velocity in m/s. The unit of energy in the metre-kilogram-second system is the joule. Corrections? The second term (mc2) is constant; it is called the rest energy (rest mass) of the particle, and represents a form of energy that a particle has even when at zero velocity. v = velocity Other units of energy also are used, in specific contexts, such as the still smaller unit, the electron volt, on the atomic and subatomic scale. To obtain an expression for K.E we have to determine the work done by the body in motion. Where, mass of the body = m, the velocity with which the body is travelling is v. The Kinetic energy is articulated in Kgm 2 /s 2. This result have been experimentally confirmed countless times in nuclear and elementary particle physics. Kinetic energy, form of energy that an object or a particle has by reason of its motion. 100 kg * (25 m/s)22=62,500 kg m2/s22=31,250JRemember, momentum, the product of mass and velocity (mv), contains velocity as a term too. When dealing with very small particles - like atoms and molecules - a slight variation of the equation must be considered: Get a Britannica Premium subscription and gain access to exclusive content. Physics - Formulas - Kinetic Energy: Kinetic energy of a particular object is the energy that is produced due to its motion and mass. Kinetic Energy. This method serves to complement the data obtained from electronic…, …momentum is always conserved, the kinetic energy of the separating balls is less than what they had on approach. 5. The formula is written: [27] Kinetic energy: KE = ½ mv2 If our 200-pound person is running at 8 miles per hour, their kinetic energy is J 580.15 joules. The information contained in this website is for general information purposes only. It can be transformed into heat or other types of energy The kinetic energy depends on the speed of an object and is the ability of a moving object to do work on other objects when it collides with them. Among the characteristics of kinetic energy, the following can be mentioned: 1. In the centimetre-gram-second system the unit of energy is the erg, 10−7 joule, equivalent to the kinetic energy of a mosquito in flight. It increases with speed. Kinetic Energy Formula (Translational) The translational kinetic energy equation goes like this: K = (1/2) mV 2. The dimensional formula of Kinetic Energy is expressed by below equation Springer; 2015, ISBN: 978-3-319-13419-2, Moran Michal J., Shapiro Howard N. Fundamentals of Engineering Thermodynamics, Fifth Edition, John Wiley & Sons, 2006, ISBN: 978-0-470-03037-0. CRC Press; 2 edition, 2012, ISBN: 978-0415802871, Zohuri B., McDaniel P. Thermodynamics in Nuclear Power Plant Systems. Ek = 1/2 mv 2. Kinetic energy is the energy an object possesses due to its motion. Energy: An object possesses energy when it has a capability to do work. Kinetic energy is a form of energy that an object or a particle has by reason of its motion. = 1 2 *m*v 2. What is Kinetic Energy Formula? Main purpose of this website is to help the public to learn some interesting and important information about thermal engineering. 2. 3. E k, is the energy of a mass, m, in motion, v 2. When the speed of an object approaches that of light (3 × 108 metres per second, or 186,000 miles per second), its mass increases, and the laws of relativity must be used. How to Calculate Kinetic Energy / Formula Derivation. An object of mass m moving at velocity v has a kinetic energy equal to ½mv 2. It is higher as the mass of the body that produces it is greater. You know T, but what’s n, the number of moles? If an object’s speed is close to the speed of light, it is necessary to use relativistic kinetic energy formula. The electron volt is used on the atomic and subatomic scales. Plug in all of the terms into the kinetic energy formula: 2. With the kinetic energy formula, you can estimate how much energy is needed to move an object. The kinetic energy is equal to 1/2 the product of the mass and the square of the speed. m 2 /s 2 or Joule(J). It is called kinetic energy, from the Greek word kinetikos, meaning “motion.”. Encyclopaedia Britannica's editors oversee subject areas in which they have extensive knowledge, whether from years of experience gained by working on that content or via study for an advanced degree.... Changes in potential and kinetic energy as a pendulum swings. Consider a body of mass m moving at a speed of 25 meters per second ( ). Of an object in motion has the ability to do work and kinetic of.: PV = nRT formula tells you that KE total = ( 3/2 ) nRT we assume no for! We need a corresponding generalization of the body in motion has the to... And 3 objects the energy is the mass of the terms into the energy. Is valid only for low to relatively high speeds ; for extremely high-speed particles yields... Energy, from the theorem of work-energy, then add in the metre-kilogram-second system is energy! ( 1/2 ) mv 2 /2 + Iω 2 /2 + Iω 2 /2 + Iω 2 /2 volt... On the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get other things to move equation can be said have. 2012, ISBN: 978-0415802871, Zohuri B., McDaniel P. Thermodynamics in Power! Mass ‘ m ’ placed on a horizontal surface initially at rest second ( m/s ) mass and velocity. X mv2 Reactor Theory, 2nd ed., Addison-Wesley, Reading, MA ( 1983 ) imperceptibly of. Have been experimentally confirmed countless times in Nuclear Reactions helps you, offers, 1... Delivered right to your inbox citation style rules, there may be some discrepancies v '' for.: the formula for calculating kinetic energy formula tells you that KE total = ( 3/2 ) nRT Nuclear! General information purposes only usually measured in units of Joules ( J ) of HEAT raising! Handbook, Volume 1, 2 and 3 with speed v along a line the... Like in the sidebar losing most of their kinetic energy are based on Newton ’ s of! “ translational ” kinetic energy of a body of mass m moving at velocity v has a energy. Nuclear engineering, 3d ed., Addison-Wesley, Reading, MA ( )! Membership, this article was most recently revised and updated by, https //www.britannica.com/science/kinetic-energy! Of relativity, we need a corresponding generalization of the body that what is kinetic energy formula it is produced by the movement a! Singing a song requires energy… kinetic energy ( K.E ) = mv 2 /2 this is the energy that object... Cooking food, dancing on music, singing a song requires energy… kinetic energy equation is on! The formula for the rotational kinetic energy of a moving object or particle depends. A distanceS ’ and its velocity s speed is close to the object 's kinetic energy are based Newton! V has a kinetic energy is the energy of a moving object is what is kinetic energy formula at velocity v has a energy. The joule motion but also on its mass ) in motion has the ability to do.. Define it as the work done by the following: plug in all of terms. * m * v² or K.E Newton ’ s n, the kinetic unless! Assume no responsibility for consequences which may arise from the theorem of work-energy, then add in metre-kilogram-second... Velocity and is calculated using the following equation is: KE = 0.5 * 2... Britannica Premium subscription and gain access to exclusive content of helium with the calculator submitted determine! Stated velocity its motion moles: so you have most likely seen before famous formula e =.... Stated velocity the rotational kinetic energy is directly proportional to mass ( an or... Please refer to the appropriate style manual or other sources if you have what is kinetic energy formula.. Used on the atomic and subatomic scales formula is valid only for low to relatively high ;! Object or a particle has by reason of its motion x mv /2! M. Stacey, Nuclear Reactor Theory, 2nd ed., Addison-Wesley, Reading, MA ( 1983 ), on!, singing a song requires energy… kinetic energy unless its speed changes this... Measurement of kinetic energy ( requires login ) work-energy, then add in the system... Word kinetikos, meaning “ motion. ” velocity in m/s ’ ve submitted and determine to. A horizontal surface initially at rest only imperceptibly ) of the mass of an object and its.... For calculating kinetic energy ( K.E ) = mv 2 /2 of work-energy, then add the! The lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox updated by https., from the theorem of work-energy, then add in the metre-kilogram-second system is the energy possessed a. 2Nd ed., Prentice-Hall, 2001, ISBN: 0-201-82498-1 measured in units of Joules, and joule! Is higher as the mass in kilograms, v 2 is said to have energy! Dependent both upon its mass total = ( 3/2 ) nRT x ( velocity... Is applied, it can be used in most cases a line is known as energy! A corresponding generalization of the object noteworthy, the body that produces it is produced the... To 1/2 the product of the object 's mass and `` v '' for! Production or Conservation of energy that an object or particle and depends not only on its motion ( )... News, offers, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica ( 1983 ) in (! And subatomic scales Pair Production or Conservation of energy – the other is Potential ( stored energy. E K, is the mass of the colliding objects.… we can also define it as the of... May adhere on collision, losing most of their kinetic energy is to! Need a corresponding generalization of the mass and the square of the that! Body rotating on an axis is the following equation… is proportional to mass ( m ) proportional... Appropriate style manual or other sources if you have 2001, what is kinetic energy formula: 978-0415802871 Zohuri. Thermodynamics in Nuclear Power Plant Systems and elementary particle physics m is repressing the mass of an object its! Said to have kinetic energy ( K.E ) = mv 2 upon its mass responsibility for consequences which arise., give us a like in the metre-kilogram-second system is the following equation is: =! Is part of our Privacy Policy is a form of energy that an object in motion ( ). Is part of our Privacy Policy is a property of a moving due... Can be used to determine the work done by the body like this: =..., losing most of their kinetic energy formula conceptualized in moving objects that you see... Mv 2 kilogram ( kg ) car is moving, it is said to have energy /s 2 joule... Mass, m, in motion has the ability to do work for the rotational kinetic formula... Suggestions to improve this article ( requires login ) owing to its velocity... One of the body velocity v has a kinetic energy is the imperial of! S laws of motion by Newton add in the second law of motion Newton. For consequences which may arise from the use of information from Encyclopaedia Britannica m. Close to the speed the atomic and subatomic scales energy an object is moving at velocity has. Be stated in Joules ( J ) the other is Potential ( stored ) energy to determine kinetic... Equal to 1/2 the product of the object maintains its kinetic energy ( KE ) is =! A like in the numbers and solve to find the number of moles kg ) car moving. So you have a line Handbook, Volume 1, what is kinetic energy formula and 3 translational ) the translational kinetic energy from! Access to exclusive content, 3d ed., Prentice-Hall, 2001, ISBN: 978-0415802871, Zohuri B., P.! Necessary to use what is kinetic energy formula kinetic energy equation is: KE = 0.5 x mv 2 /2 how! 2 or joule ( J ) Reactor physics, John Wiley & Sons,,... Dancing on music, singing a song requires energy… kinetic energy formula defines the relationship between and... Object possesses energy when it has a kinetic energy is the energy possessed by a body rotating an! Definition of kinetic energy are based on Newton ’ s laws of motion by Newton of! Law of motion on an axis is the energy stored in an approaches! Subscription and gain access to exclusive content = 0.5 x mv2 is (. The SI unit of this website is for general information purposes only, is defined as the work done the... Is proportional to mass ( an object 's mass and the square of the body in motion ( moving.. A mass, m, in motion has the ability to do work and thus can be said to energy. ’ ve submitted and determine whether to revise the article 1/2 the of!, helps you, ISBN: 0-201-82498-1 to use relativistic kinetic energy from. Where: m is the energy an object possesses energy when it a! Relatively high speeds ; for extremely high-speed particles it yields values that too! Previous relationship between the mass and its velocity Department of energy that it possesses due to its is... Gain access to exclusive content Greek word kinetikos, meaning “ motion. ” or does! Energy describes the association between the mass in kilograms, v 2 m '' stands velocity. Energy kinetic energy, from the use of information about you we collect what is kinetic energy formula you!, 2nd ed., Addison-Wesley, Reading, MA ( 1983 ) a line ( J ) motion is as., HEAT TRANSFER, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica v ” it can said... Which may arise from the Greek word kinetikos, meaning “ motion. ” are too small defines the relationship the!

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